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Development history of forklift truck

时间:2018-05-08 16:25:00 点击:
Open classification: machinery, logistics equipment, transportation machinery, storage equipment
Forklift plays a very important role in the logistics system of the enterprise, which is the main force in the material handling equipment. Widely used in railway stations, ports, airports, factories, warehouses and other departments of the national economy, is a mechanical loading, stacking and short distance transportation equipment. Self propelled forklift truck appeared in 1917. During the Second World War, the development of forklift. China from the beginning of the 50's in twentieth Century began manufacturing forklift. Especially with the rapid development of China's economy, most of the material handling of the enterprise has been out of the original manual handling, instead of the forklift truck based mechanical handling. Therefore, in the past few years, the demand of China's forklift truck market is growing at a rate of two digit per year.
Currently on the market to choose the brand forklift is numerous, complex models, combined with the technology of the product itself and very professional, so models selection, supplier selection is many buy companies often face the problem. In this paper, we focus on the selection of models, brand choice, performance evaluation criteria and so on.
One, model selection
Required models and configurations.
1, vehicle classification
Forklift can usually be divided into three categories: forklift trucks, electric forklift and warehouse forklift.
(1) a forklift.
Internal combustion forklift is divided into ordinary diesel forklift, forklift, forklift and forklift side container.
The ordinary forklift.
General use of diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas or natural gas engine as power, load capacity of 120 to 8.0 tons, operating channel width is generally 3.5 ~ 5.0 M, taking into account the exhaust emissions and noise problem, usually with outdoors, workshop or other no places special requirements on the exhaust emissions and noise. Because of the convenience of fuel, it can be realized for long time continuous operation, and can be competent in the harsh environment (such as rain) work.
Heavy forklift truck
Use of diesel engine as power, carrying capacity of 10 ~ 52 tons, generally used for cargo terminal, steel and other industries of the outdoor operation.
Container forklift truck
Use diesel engine as a driving force, bearing capacity of 8.0 to 4.5 tons, for the empty container stacker, heavy box pile high machine and container front crane. Used in container handling, such as container yard or port terminal operations.
The side of the forklift
Use of diesel engine as power, carrying capacity of 3 ~ 6 tons. In turn, with the goods is taken directly from the side fork ability so is mainly used to Forks strip type of goods, such as wood, steel, etc..
(2) electric forklift
To electric motor as the power, the battery for energy. Carrying capacity of 1 to 4.8 tons, operating channel width is generally 3.5 to 5 meters. Because there is no pollution, low noise, it is widely used in the environment for higher requirements, such as medicine, food and other industries. Since each cell is generally need to charge for about 8 hours later, so the Multishift conditions need to be equipped with spare batteries.
(3) warehouse forklift

Warehouse forklift is mainly for the warehouse goods handling and design of forklift. In addition to a warehouse forklift (such as manual pallet forklift) is the use of human driven, the other is driven by motor, because the body is compact, mobile and flexible, light weight and environmental performance and in the storage industry get widely used. In many operations, motor driven warehouse trucks need to have spare battery.

Electric pallet truck
Carrying capacity of 1.6 to 3 tons, operating channel width is generally 2.3 to 2.8 meters, cargo fork lift height is generally around 210mm, mainly used in warehouse and cargo handling. Generally there are two kinds of operation modes, walking and driving, which can be chosen according to the requirements of efficiency.
Electric pallet stacking forklift
Bearing capacity of 1.0 ~ 1.6 tons, the operating channel width is generally 2.3 ~ 2.8 meters, in the structure than the electric pallet truck much door frame, fork lifting height at 4.8 meters, mainly for warehouse goods stacking and handling.
The forklift
Bearing capacity of 1.0 ~ 2.5 tons, the door frame can overall advancement or retract retracted when the operating channel width is 2.7 to 3.2 meters, enhance the height up to a maximum of about 11 meters, commonly used in warehouse and the height of stacking, pick up operation.
The selection of electric forklift
In some cases (such as supermarket distribution center), do not need to ship the whole tray, but in order to choose a variety of goods to form a tray, which is called the election. According to the height of the selection of goods, electric place selecting forklift can be divided into low place selecting forklift (2.5 meters) and the high place selecting forklift (up to a maximum of 10 meters).
Carrying capacity of 2 to 2.5 tons (low), 1 to 1.2 tons (in the middle high, with the driver's room to upgrade).
The low driving forklift stacking to three
Usually equipped with a three towards the head of the stacking, forklift does not need to turn to, fork rotation can be achieved on both sides of the goods stacking and pick up, channel width of 1.5 to 2.0 meters, enhance height of up to 12 meters. Forklift truck cab is always in the ground can not be promoted, taking into account the operation of the visual field, mainly used to enhance the height of less than 6 m.
The high driving forklift stacking to three
And low driving three to the stacking forklift similar, high driving three to stacking forklift also equipped with a three to the stacking head, channel width of 1.5 to 2 meters, to enhance the height of up to 14.5 meters. The cab can be promoted, the driver can clearly observe any height of the goods, also can choose the job. High driving three to stacking forklift in the efficiency and performance are better than low driving three to stacking forklift, so the model has gradually replaced the low driving three to the stacking forklift.
The electric tractor
The traction motor is driven by a motor, using its traction capability (3 to 25 tons), and the car behind pull a few loading goods. Often used to transport large quantities of goods between the workshop and the workshop, such as the transportation of the warehouse to the assembly line, and the baggage transportation at the airport.
2, according to the operating mode selection models and configuration
The selection of models and configurations is generally from the following aspects:
(1) job function
The basic operation function of forklift is divided into horizontal handling, stacking, loading / unloading / pick up, picking. According to the enterprise to achieve the function can be introduced from the above models in the preliminary determination. Also special operations will affect the forklift body configuration, such as handling is roll and molten iron, need forklift installation is to perform a specific function.
(2) job requirements
Forklift truck operation requirements including general tray or specification of goods, lifting height, operating channel width, gradeability requirement, also need to consider the operational efficiency of the efficiency of different models of different, work habits (such as used car or driving).
(3) operating environment
If the enterprise needs to carry the goods or warehouse environment to the noise or the exhaust emissions and other environmental protection requirements, in the choice of models and configuration should be considered. If it is in the cold storage or in the environment of explosion-proof requirements, the configuration of the forklift should also be cold storage type or explosion-proof type. Carefully examine the forklift operation will need to be approved by the place, conceive the possibility of a problem, for example, storage door high for forklift truck would affect; out of the elevator, the lift height and load effect of fork lift truck; in the upstairs floor bearing whether meet the corresponding requirements,.
In the selection and determination of the configuration, the forklift truck to the detailed description of the working conditions, and field survey to ensure that the purchase of the truck is fully in line with the needs of the enterprise. Even after the completion of the above analysis, there are still several models that can meet the above requirements. At this point you need to pay attention to the following aspects:
Different models, work efficiency is different, so need the number of forklift, the number of drivers are also different, leading to the changes of a series of cost, as detailed in this performance evaluation part about the cost of the exposition.
If forklift truck in warehouse operation, different models of the required channel width, improve the ability to also have differences, which will bring the warehouse layout changes, such as the change of the amount of goods storage.
The changes of the models and the number of models will have an impact on the team management and so on.
4 different models of market retains the quantity is different, after-sale protection ability is also different, such as low driving three to forklift stacking and high driving three to the forklift stacking belong to narrow channel forklift series, can be in a very narrow channel (1.5 to 2.0 meters) completion of the stacking, pick up. But the former can not improve the cab, so the operation of the visual field is poor, the work efficiency is low. Because the latter can completely cover the former features, and performance is more outstanding, so the latter in Europe, the latter market sales exceeded 5 to 4 times, in China, it reached more than 6 times. Therefore, most of the suppliers are focused on the development of high driving three to stacking forklift, and low can completely cover the former features, and performance is more outstanding, so the latter in Europe, the latter market sales exceeded 5 to 4 times, in China, it reached more than 6 times. Therefore most suppliers are focused on the development of high driving three to forklift stacking, and low driving three to forklift stacking is used in small tonnage, lifting height is low (generally in 6 meters) conditions. In the market rarely, the number of engineers, the number of service engineers, engineers experience, and other parts of the inventory level of service capabilities will be relatively weak.
To evaluate the impact of the above aspects, the most reasonable solution is chosen.

Two, brand choice
At present, the domestic market of forklift brands, from the domestic to the import of dozens of.
Domestic brands: Heli, Hangzhou, Dalian, gigantic whale, Hunan forklift, Tai Lifu, Jingjiang, Liugong, Jiali, Jingjiang Baoli, forklift Tianjin, Luoyang Yituo, force heavy industries, Yuchai forklift, Hefei Autopass moved, Hunan Heng.
Imported brands: Linde (Germany), Hester (USA), Toyota (Japan), JUNGHEINRICH (Germany), BT (Sweden), Komatsu (Japan), TCM (Japan), nichiyu (Japan), Nissan (Japan), modern (South Korea), fighting Doosan Daewoo (Korea), crown (USA), OM (Italy), OPK (Japan), Nissan (Japan), Mitsubishi (Japan).
Joint venture brands: visa, Ruyi, nowlis sea.
First determine the scope of several brands, and then integrated assessment. In the primary stage, the following several aspects as the primary standard:
1, brand product quality and reputation;
2, the brand's ability to protect the customer's service, in the location or near the location of service outlets;
3, enterprises have used the brand's product quality and service;
4, select the brand needs to be consistent with the positioning of the enterprise.
After the primary election, the comprehensive evaluation of the various brands including brand, product quality, price, service ability, etc..
Many companies in the choice of brand, there is a certain misunderstanding: if you are imported brands of forklift, the quality is almost the same, the price should be close to the. In fact, this is a common sense of error, like a car, imported brands of cars a lot, the price gap between different brands is also very large, while the performance of course, there are differences. In addition, the forklift is an industrial equipment, to ensure the normal operation of the equipment is a business goal, the suspension means that the loss. Therefore, the choice of a service is essential to protect the brand. Forklift truck market in China is very large, and therefore attract a lot of foreign brand forklift supplier, but China is vast in territory, to set up a national professional service network, no time is difficult to achieve.
Three, performance evaluation criteria
In the comprehensive assessment, a lot of enterprises because of the professional knowledge and technology of forklift, often the product quality can not make a reasonable judgment. In general, the high quality of its superior performance is often reflected in high efficiency, low cost, high reliability, ergonomic design and service facilities, etc..
1, high efficiency
High efficiency does not mean only high speed (travelling, lifting and falling speed). It also means the operator in complete a cycle of work required for a short time, and can keep the efficiency over a period of time the. A number of factors can promote efficiency:
Speed, such as speed, lift and down speed, etc.;
Application of human machine engineering design, reduce the number of operation action;
The accuracy of the operation;
The application of ergonomics design, minimizing fatigue;
Good vision;
2, low cost
The total cost per year for the purchase and use of a forklift truck:
Purchase cost;
Maintenance cost;
Cost of energy consumption;
The cost of labor;
The purchase cost will be equal to the life of the forklift. Therefore, high prices will be higher than the cost of the purchase of a long, so that the procurement cost reduction.
The actual maintenance cost is not only related to the cost of the maintenance spare parts, but also with the failure rate or the failure time. Therefore, a high quality forklift, due to its low failure rate, its maintenance costs are also lower.
Energy consumption will vary with the different power systems of the forklift, such as power, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas or gasoline.
Labor costs vary with the number of drivers and their total monthly wages vary. The number of drivers will be reduced by the use of high efficiency forklift trucks.
3, high security
The safety design of the forklift truck should be able to guarantee the safety of the driver, the goods and the forklift itself. High quality forklift often takes into account every detail, every possibility in safety design.
4, man-machine engineering
Ergonomics is a widely used in product design especially improve the operating environment of the science, the purpose is through reducing driver fatigue and increase the operation comfort and other means, the maximum improve production efficiency.
In the design of forklift truck, ergonomics is reflected in every aspect:
Reduce the fatigue of the driver's operation: the unique design can reduce the operator's operation, so that more effort to operate;
II comfort: human nature of the design can make the driver to maintain a good mood, reduce operational errors;
Good vision: to provide a good visual field of the forklift truck operation process, not only can improve the efficiency, but also to ensure the safety of the driver.
5, convenient maintenance
To consider whether the maintenance of forklift. All the parts should be replaced easily, the fault diagnosis and exclusion to be quick. The control system of high quality forklift truck has been modularized, which can be directly connected with a laptop computer, using the diagnostic program to quickly find fault or modify the parameters set (such as driving speed).
Many factors of enterprise before buy forklift trucks, in addition to the price and tonnage of understanding forklift, should also according to enterprise specific conditions and development planning, comprehensive consideration of the forklift manufacturers strength, reputation, service assurance made after mining the decision to purchase. In addition to the strength of the forklift truck suppliers can provide reliable after-sales service, its sales staff should have professional knowledge, to help customers complete the vehicle and the configuration of the selection phase of the work.
CPCD should be a generation of forklift model code, just like now FD/FG, the first C should be the domestic code, it should be representative of the internal combustion engine or the battery. CPCD is a general forklift truck. C: forklift; P: balance weight; C: diesel engine; D: tonnage. And the side of its code CCCD, and so on, there are some special forklift has its own code.